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Faculty Detail    
Campus Address BBRB 276 Zip 2170
Phone  205-934-4972
Other websites PubMed Listing

Undergraduate  Loyola College of Maryland    1979  B.S. Biology 
Graduate  UAB    1985  Ph.D. Molecular and Cellular Biology 

Faculty Appointment(s)
Appointment Type Department Division Rank
Primary  Microbiology  Microbiology Professor

Graduate Biomedical Sciences Affiliations
Cellular and Molecular Biology Program 
Neuroscience Graduate Program 

Biographical Sketch 
Scott R. Barnum (b. 1957), Professor of Microbiology, (secondary appointments in Neurology and Rheumatology) completed undergraduate studies in biology at Loyola College in Baltimore (B.S., cum laude, 1979). He completed his graduate studies at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (Ph.D., Microbiology, 1985) on the biosynthesis and catabolism of complement factor D. Postdoctoral studies were pursued at the Research Institute of Scripps Clinic on the genomic organization of several complement genes. He joined the UAB faculty in 1989, where studies examining the production and regulation of complement in the central nervous system were initiated. Outside interests include dogs, gardening, futbol, cycling and music.

Society Memberships
Organization Name Position Held Org Link
American Association for the Advancement of Science  Member   
American Association of Immunologists  Member   
American Society for Neurochemistry  Member   
International Complement Society  Member   
International Society for Neuroimmunology  Member   

Research/Clinical Interest
complement,adhesion molecules, neuroimmunology, innate immunity, neuropathology, neurodegeneration, multiple sclerosis, cerebral malaria, ALS
Our lab is broadly interested in inflammation in the CNS and focuses on model systems to address questions related to CNS innate immunity. Currently we are focusing on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the animal model for multiple sclerosis, experimental cerebral malaria, the animal model for human cerebral malaria and amyothrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using these models we examine, with our collaborators, for the role, that complement, adhesion molecules and C-reactive protein play in disease development and progression. We employ a wide variety of techniques using a broad array of mutant mice. Our focus is mechanistic but with a strong emphasis on moving towards translation studies, developing proof of concept for therapeutic approaches for these CNS diseases.

Selected Publications 
Publication PUBMEDID
Peer-reviewed Manuscripts:

1. Barnum, S.R., Narkates, A.J., Suddath, Jr., F.L. and J.E. Volanakis. 1982. Comparative studies on the binding specificities of CRP and HOPC8. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 389:431-434.

*2. Barnum, S.R., Niemann, M.A., Kearney, J.F. and J.E. Volanakis. 1984. Quantitation of complement factor D in human serum by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. J. Immunol. Methods 67:303-309.

3. Barnum, S.R., and J.E. Volanakis. 1985. In vitro biosynthesis of complement protein D by U937 cells. J. Immunol. 134: 1799-1803.

4. Volanakis, J.E., Barnum, S.R., Giddens, M. and J.H. Galla. 1985. Renal filtration and catabolism of complement protein D. N. Engl. J. Med. 312:395-399.

5. Barnum, S.R. and J.E. Volanakis. 1985. Biosynthesis of complement protein D by HepG2 cells: a comparison of D produced by HepG2 cells, U937 cells and blood monocytes. Eur. J. Immunol. 15:1148-1151.

6. Gray, B.M., Simmons, D.R. Mason, H., Barnum, S.R. and J.E. Volanakis. 1986. Quantitative levels of C-reactive protein in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with bacterial meningitis and other conditions. J. Pediatr. 108:665-670.

7. Wetsel, R.A., Lemons, R.S., LeBeau, M.M., Barnum, S.R., Noack, D. and B.F. Tack. 1988. Molecular analysis of human complement component C5: localization of the structural gene to chromosome 9. Biochemistry 27:1474-1482.

8. Barnum, S.R., Amiguet, P., Amiguet-Barras, F., Fey, G. and B.F. Tack. 1989. Complete intron/exon organization of DNA encoding the α' chain of human C3. J. Biol. Chem. 264:8471-8474.

9. Barnum, S.R., Kristensen, T., Chaplin, D., Seldin, M. and B.F. Tack. 1989. Molecular analysis of the murine C4b-binding protein gene. Chromosome assignment and partial gene organization. Biochemistry 28:8312-8316.

*10. Barnum S.R. and B Dahlback. 1990. C4b-binding protein, a regulatory component of the classical pathway of complement, is an acute-phase protein and is elevated in systemic lupus erythematosus. Complement Inflamm. 7:71-77.

*11. Barnum, S.R., Jones, J.L. and E.N. Benveniste. 1992. Interferon-gamma regulation of C3 gene expression in human astroglioma cells. J. Neuroimmunol. 38:275-282.

*12. Barnum, S.R., Ishii, Y., Agrawal, A. and J.E. Volanakis. 1992. Production and interferon-gamma-mediated regulation of C2 and Factors B and D by the astroglioma cell line U105-MG. Biochem. J. 287:595-601.
*13. Barnum, S.R., Jones, J.L. and E.N. Benveniste. 1993. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor mediated-regulation of C3 gene expression in human astroglioma cells. GLIA 7:225-236.

*14. Yang, C.Y., Jones, J.L. and S.R. Barnum. 1993. Expression of decay-accelerating factor (CD55), membrane cofactor protein (CD46) and CD59 in the human astroglioma cell line, D54-MG, and primary rat astrocytes. J. Neuroimmunol. 47:123-132.

*15. Barnum, S.R. and J. Jones. 1994. Transforming growth factor-β1 inhibits inflammatory cytokine-induced C3 gene expression in astrocytes. J. Immunol. 152:765-773.

*16. Lacy, M., Jones, J., Whittemore, S.R., Haviland, D.L., Wetsel, R.A. and S.R. Barnum. 1995. Expression of the receptors for the C5a anaphylatoxin, interleukin-8 and fMLP by human astrocytes and microglia. J. Neuroimmunol. 61:71-78.

*17. Barnum, S.R. and J. Jones. 1995. Differential regulation of C3 gene expression in human astroglioma cells by interferon-γ and interleukin-1β. Neurosci. Letts. 197:121-124.

*18. Barnum, S.R., Jones, J., Müller-Ladner, U., Samini, A. and I.L. Campbell. 1996. Chronic complement C3 gene expression in the CNS of transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted interleukin 6 expression. GLIA 18:107-117.

*19. Müller-Ladner, U., Jones, J., Gay, S., Wetsel, R.A., Raine, C. and S.R. Barnum. 1996. Enhanced expression of chemotactic receptors in multiple sclerosis lesions. J. Neurol Sci. 144:135-144.

*20. Drouin, S.M., Carlino, J.A. and S.R. Barnum. 1996. Transforming growth factor-β2-mediated regulation of C3 gene expression in monocytes. Mol. Immunol. 133:1025-1034.

*21. Kossman, T., Stahel, P. F., Morganti-Kossman, M.C., Jones, J. and S.R. Barnum. 1997. Elevated levels of the complement components C3 and Factor B in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of patients with traumatic brain injury. J. Neuroimmunol. 73:63-69.

*22. Stahel, P.F., Frei, K., Eugster, H.P., Fontana, A., Hummel, K.M., Wetsel, R.A, Ames, R. and S.R. Barnum. 1997. TNF-α-mediated expression of the receptor for anaphylatoxin C5a (C5aR) on neurons in experimental Listeria meningocephalitis. J. Immunol. 159:861-869.

*23. Stahel, P.F., Nadal, D., Pfister, H.W., Paradisis, P.M. and S.R. Barnum. 1997. Increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of complement components C3 and factor B discriminate bacterial from viral meningitis. Lancet 349:1886-1887.

*24. Stahel, P.F., Kossmann, T., Hans, V., Morganti-Kossmann, M.C. and S.R. Barnum. 1997. Experimental diffuse axonal injury induces enhanced neuronal C5a receptor expression in rats. Mol. Brain Res., 150:205-212.

*25. Stahel, P.F, Frei, K., Fontana, A., Eugster, H.P., Ault, B.H. and S.R. Barnum. 1997. Evidence for intrathecal synthesis of alternative pathway complement activation proteins in experimental meningitis. Amer. J. Path. 151:897-904.

*26. Drouin, S.M., Carlino, J.A. Kiley, S. and S.R. Barnum. 1998. Transforming growth factor-β2 regulates C3 expression in monocytes by a PKC-dependent pathway. Mol. Immunol., 35:1-11.

*27. Paradisis, P.M., Campbell, I.L. and S.R. Barnum. 1998. Elevated complement C5a receptor expression on glial cells and neurons induced by the central nervous system production of interleukin-3 in transgenic mice. GLIA, 24:338-345.

*28. Nataf, S. Davoust, N. and S.R. Barnum. 1998. Kinetics of anaphylatoxin C5a receptor during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J. Neuroimmunol. 91:147-155.

*29. Davoust, N., Jones, J., Stahel, P.F., Ames, R. and S.R. Barnum. 1999. The receptor for the C3a anaphylatoxin is expressed by glial cells and neurons in the normal and inflammed central nervous system. GLIA 26:201-211.

*30. Nataf, S., Davoust, N., Ames, R. and S.R. Barnum. 1999. Human T-cells express the C5a receptor and are chemotattracted to C5a. J. Immunol. 162:4018-4023.

*31. Davoust, N., Nataf, S., Holers, V.M. and S.R. Barnum. 1999. Expression of Crry, a murine complement regulatory protein, in the central nervous system. GLIA, 27:162-170.

*32. Davoust, N., Nataf, S., Reiman, R., Holers, V.M., Campbell. I.L. and S.R. Barnum. 1999. Central nervous system-targeted expression of the complement inhibitor sCrry prevents experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J. Immunol., 163:6551-6556.

34. Stahel, P.F., Kariya, K., Shohami, E., Barnum, S.R., Eugster, H-P., Trentz, O., Kossmann, T. and M.C. Morganti-Kossmann. 2000. Intracerebral complement C5a receptor (CD88) expression is regulated by TNF and lymphotoxin-alpha following closed head injury in mice.. J Neuroimmunol. 109:164-172.

*35. Nataf, S., Carroll, S., Wetsel, R.A., Szalai, A. and S.R. Barnum. 2000 Attenuation of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in C3 and factor B deficient mice. J. Immunol. 165:5867-5873.

*36. Nataf, S., Levison, S. and S.R. Barnum. 2001. Expression of the anaphylatoxin C5a receptor in the oligodendrocyte lineage. Brain Res. 894:321-326.

*37. Barnum, S.R., Ames, R.S., Maycox, P.R., Hadingham, S., Meakin, J., Harrison, D. and A.A. Parsons. 2002. Expression of the complement C3a and C5a receptors after permanent focal ischemia: An alternative interpretation. Glia, 38:169-173.

38. Tarner, I.H., Barnum, S.R., Echols, J., Jüsten, H.-P., Neumann, E., Wessinghage, D., Gay, S., Schölmerich, J. and U. Müller-Ladner. 2002. Local production of complement components in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 46:934-945.

*39. Reiman, R., Gerard, C., Campbell, I.L. and S.R. Barnum. 2002. Disruption of the C5a Receptor gene fails to protect against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Eur. J. Immunol., 32:1157-1163.

40. Szalai, A.J., Nataf, S. Hu, X-Z., and S.R. Barnum. 2002. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis is inhibited in transgenic mice expressing human C-reactive protein. J. Immunol., 168:5792-5797.

41. Rancan, M., Morganti-Kossmann, M.C., Barnum, S.R., Saft, S., Schmidt, O.I., Ertel, W., and P.F. Stahel. 2003. CNS-targeted complement inhibition mediates neuroprotection after head injury in transgenic mice. J. Cerebral. Blood Flow Metabol. 23:1070-1074.

*42. Axtell, R.C., Webb, M.S., Barnum, S.R. and C. Raman. 2004. Critical role for CD5 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Inhibition of engagement reverses disease in mice. J. Immunol. Cutting Edge. 173:2928-2932.

*43. Boos, L., Wetsel, R.A., Ames. R.S., Campbell, I.L. and S.R. Barnum. 2004. Deletion of the C3a receptor attenuates while CNS-specific ectopic expression of C3a exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J. Immunol., 173:4708-4714.

44. Campos-Torres, A., Touret, M., Barnum S.R., Vidal P.P. and C. de Waele. 2005. The response of central glia within the vestibular and cochlear nuclei following unilateral labyrinthectomy or vestibular afferent activity blockade by transtympanic tetrodotoxin injection in the rat. Neurosci. 130:853-865.

*45. Boos, L.A., Szalai, A.J., and Barnum, S.R. 2005. Murine complement C4 is not required for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Glia, 49:158-160.

46. Nicholas, A.P, Sambandam, T., Echols, J.D. and S.R. Barnum. 2005. Expression of citrullinated proteins in murine EAE. J. Comp. Neurol. 486:254-266.

*47. Osmers, I., Bullard, D.C. and S.R. Barnum. 2005. PSGL-1 is not required for development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J. Neuroimmunol. 166:193-196.

*48 Boos, L., Szalai, A.J and S.R. Barnum. 2005. C3a expressed in the central nervous system protects against LPS-induced shock. Neurosci. Letters. 387:68-71.

*49. Read, R.W., Szalai, A.J., Vogt, S.D., McGwin, G. and S. R. Barnum. 2006. Genetic deficiency of C3 as well as CNS-targeted expression of the complement inhibitor sCrry, ameliorates experimental autoimmune uveitis. Exp. Eye Res. 82:389-394.

*50. Reiman, R., Campos Torres, A., Martin, B., Ting, J.P., Campbell, I.L. and S.R. Barnum. 2005. Expression of C5a in the brain does not exacerbate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Neurosci Letters. 30:134-138.

*51. Bullard, D., Hu, J., Schoeb, T., Axtell, R., Raman, C. and S.R. Barnum. 2005. Critical requirement of CD11b (Mac-1) on T cells and accessory cells for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J.Immunol. 175:6327-6333.

52. Szalai, A.J., Hu, X., Raman, C. and S.R. Barnum. 2005. Requirement of the Fc receptor common γ-chain for γδ T cell-mediated promotion of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Eur. J. Immunol. 35:3487-3492.

*53. Osmers, I., Szalai, A.J. and S.R. Barnum. Complement in BuB/BnJ Mice Revisited: Serum C3 Levels and Complement Activity are Not Elevated. 2006. J. Immunol. Meth., 43:1722-1725.

54. Nozaki, M., Raisler, B.J., Sakurai, E., Sarma, J.V., Barnum, S.R., Lambris, J.D., Chen, Y., Zhang, K., Ambati, B.K., Baffi, J.Z. and J. Ambati. 2006. Drusen complement components C3a and C5a promote choroidal neovascularization. PNAS, 103:2328-2333.

55. Vogt, S.D., Barnum, S.R,, Curcio, C.A. and R.W. Read. 2006. Distribution of membrane-bound complement regulators and anaphylatoxin receptors in normal human retina. Exp. Eye Res., 83:834-840.

56. Axtell, R., Xu, L., Barnum, S.R. and C. Raman. 2006. CD5 dependent CK2 activation is vital for the persistence of encephalitogenic T-cells in the CNS. J. Immunol., 177:8542-8549.

*57. Bullard, D., Hu, J., Schoeb, T. and S.R. Barnum. 2007. ICAM-1 expression is required on multiple cell types for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J.Immunol., 17:851-857.

58. Melendi, G.A., Hoffman, S.J., Karron, R.A., Irusta, P.M., Laham, F.R., Humbles, A., Schofield, B., Pan, C-H., Rabols, R., Thumar, B., Thumar, A., Gerard, N.P., Mitzner, W., Barnum, S.R., Gerard, C., Kleeberger, S.R. and F.P. Polack. 2006. C5 modulates airways hyperreactivity and pulmonary eosinophilia during enhanced respiratory syncytial virus disease by decreasing C3a receptor expression. J. Virol., 81:991-999.

*59. Adams, J.E., Webb, M.S., Hu. J., Staunton, D. and S.R. Barnum. 2007. Disruption of the β2/αD gene (CD11d) fails to protect against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J. Neuroimmunol., 184:180-187.

*60.Szalai, A.J., Hu, J., Adams, J.E. and S.R. Barnum. 2007. Complement in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis revisited: C3 is required for the development of maximal disease. Mol. Immunol., 44:3132-3136.

*61. Bullard, D., Hu, J., Adams, J.E., Schoeb, T. and S.R. Barnum. 2007. Deletion of CD11c (p150,95) attenuates the chronic phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Amer. J. Pathol. 170:2001-2008.

62. Rahpeymai, Y., Barnum, S., Humbles, A., Gerard, C., Pekny, M. and M. Pekna. Signalling through C5aR is not involved in basal neurogenesis. 2007. J. Neurosci. Res., 85:2892-2897.

63. Briggs, D.T., Martin, C.B., Ingersoll, S.A., Barnum, S.R. and B.K. Martin. 2007. Demyelination protection conferred with astrocyte-specific expression of a soluble form of the murine complement control protein Crry in the cuprizone model. Glia. 55:1405-1415.

*64. Smith, S. and S.R. Barnum. 2008. Differential expression of β2-integrins, central nervous system trafficking, and cytokine production between γδ and αβ T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J. Leuk. Biol., 83:71-79.

*65. Smith, S., Ludwig, M., Wohler, J.E., Bullard, D.C. Szalai, A.J. and S.R. Barnum. 2008. Deletion of both C3 and ICAM-1 enhances severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis compared to C3-deficient mice. Neurosci. Letts. 442:158-160.

*66. Wohler, J.E. and S.R. Barnum. 2008. Nylon wool purification alters the activation of T cells. Mol Immunol. 46:1007-1010.

*67. Dugger, K.J., Zinn, K.R., Weaver, C.,. Bullard, D.C. and S.R. Barnum. 2009. Dual roles for LFA-1 on effector and regulatory T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J. Neuroimmunol. 206:22-27.

68. Osmers, I., Smith, S.S., Parks, B.W., Yu, S., Wohler, J.E., Barnum, S.R. and J.H.S. Kabarowski. 2009. Deletion of the G2A Receptor Fails to Attenuate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. J. Neuroimmunol. 207:18-23.

69. Brambilla, R. Hu, X., Karmally, S., Shestopalov, V., Ivanov, D., Nathanson, L, Barnum, S.R. and John R. Bethea. 2009. Transgenic inhibition of astroglial NF-κB improves neurological outcome following EAE by suppressing chronic CNS inflammation. J Immunol. 182:2628-2640.

*70. Wohler, J.E., Smith, S.S., Zinn, K.R., Bullard, D.C. and S.R. Barnum. 2009. γδ T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: early trafficking events and cytokine requirements. Eur. J. Immunol. 39:1516-1526. (featured paper)

*71. Wohler, J.E., Bullard, D.C., Schoeb, T., and S.R. Barnum. 2009. LFA-1 is critical for regulatory T cell homeostasis and function. Mol. Immunol. 46:2424-2428.

*72. Ramos, T.N., Wohler, J.E. and S.R. Barnum. 2009. Deletion of both the C3a and C5a receptors fails to protect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Neurosci. Letters, 467:234-236.

*73. Hu, X., Barnum, S.R., Wohler, J.E., Schoeb, T.R. and D.C. Bullard. 2010. Differential ICAM-1 isoform expression regulates the development and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Mol. Immunol. 47:1692-1670.

74. Ingersoll, S.A., Martin, C.B., Barnum, S.R. and B.K. Martin. 2010. CNS-specific expression of C3a and C5a exacerbate demyelination severity in the cuprizone model. Mol. Immunol. 48:219-230.

75. Hu, X., Jones, N.R, Ramos, T.N., Skibinski, G.A., McCrory, M.A., Wright, T.T., Barnum, S.R. and Szalai, A.J. 2011. Inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C-reactive protein transgenic mice is FcγR11b dependent. Autoimmun. Dis. 2011: ID#484936.

*76. Ramos, T.N., Darley, M., Bilker, O., Rayner, J.C., Ahras, M., Wohler, J.E. and S.R. Barnum. 2011. Cutting Edge: The membrane attack complex of complement is required for the development of experimental cerebral malaria. J. Immunol., 186:6657-6660.

77. Woehrl, B., Brower, M.C., Murr, C., Heckenberg, M.G.B., Baas, F., Pfister, H.W., Zwinderman, A.H., Morgan, B.P., Barnum, S.R., van der Ende, A., Koedel, U., and van de Beek, D. 2011. Complement factor 5 in pneumococcal meningitis. J. Clin. Invest., 121:3943-3853.

78. Weinberg, J.A., MacLennan, P.A., Vandromme–Cusick, M.J., Angotti, J.M., Magnotti, A.J., Kerby, J.D., Rue III, L.W., Barnum, S.R., and R.P. Patel. 2012. Microvascular response to red blood cell transfusion in trauma patients. Shock, 37:276-281.

79. Wheeler, C., Nabors, L.B., Barnum, S.R., Yang, X., Hu, X., Schoeb, T., Chen, D., Ardelt, A.A. and P.H. King. 2012. Estrogen Dependent Attenuation of EAE in a Transgenic Mouse with Astrocytic Expression of the RNA Regulator HuR. J. Neuroimmunol. 246:34-37.

*80. Darley, M.M., Ramos, T.N., Wetsel, R.A. and S.R. Barnum. 2012. Deletion of Carboxypeptidase N does not alter susceptibility to experimental cerebral malaria. Parasite Immunol. In press.

*81. Ramos, T.N., Darley, M.M., Weckbach, S., Stahel, P.F., Tomlinson, S. and S.R. Barnum. 2012. The C5 convertase is not required for activation of the terminal complement pathway in murine experimental cerebral malaria. J. Biol. Chem., 287:24734-24738.

82. Stapley, R., Owusu, B., Brandon, A., Cusick, M., Rodriguez, C., Marques, M., Kerby, J.D., Barnum, S.R., Weinberg, J., Lancaster Jr, J.R. and R.P. Patel. 2012. Erythrocyte storage increases rates of NO- and nitrite scavenging: Implications for transfusion related toxicity. Biochem. J., In press.

Books, Book Chapters, Commentaries and Invited Reviews:

1. Barnum, S.R., Fey, G. and B.F. Tack. 1989. The biosynthesis and genetics of C3. In Current Topics of Microbiology and Immunology, J.D. Lambris (ed.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Vol. 153, pp. 23-43.

2. Barnum, S.R. and J.E. Volanakis. 1990. Structure and function of human C3. In The Year in Immunology 1989-90, J.M. Cruse and R.E. Lewis, eds. Karger, Basel. Vol. 6, pp. 208-228.

3. Barnum, S.R. 1991. C4b-binding protein, a regulatory component of complement. Immunol. Res. 10:28-42.

4. Stransky, G., Gay, R.E., Trabandt, A., Barnum, S.R. and S. Gay. 1992. Oncogenes and retroviruses in rheumatoid arthritis. In Rheumatoid Arthritis, J. Smolen, J. Kalden and R. Maini (eds.) Springer, Heidelberg. pp. 231-243.

5. Barnum, S.R. 1993. Biosynthesis and regulation of complement by cells of the central nervous system. Complement Today: Complement Profiles J.M. Cruse and R.E. Lewis (eds.) Karger, Basel. pp. 76-95.

6. Volanakis, J.E., Barnum, S.R. and J.M. Kilpatrick. 1993. Purification and properties of human factor D. In Proteolytic Enzymes of Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Complement Activation (Methods in Enzymology), L. Lorand and K.G. Mann (eds.) Academic Press. Vol. 223, pp. 82-97.

7. Barnum, S.R. 1995. Complement Biosynthesis in the Central Nervous System. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 6:132-146.

8. Spiegel, K., Emmerling, M.R. and S.R. Barnum. 1998. Acute phase proteins: Strategies for inhibition of complement activation in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In Inflammatory Mechanisms and Management of Neurodegeneration. P. Wood, ed., Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 129-176.

9. Stahel, P.F. and S.R. Barnum. 1997. Bacterial meningitis: Complement gene expression in the central nervous system. Immunopharmacology 38:65-72.

10. Nataf, S., Stahel, P.F., Davoust, N., and S.R. Barnum. 1999. Complement anaphylatoxin receptor expression on neurons: New tricks for old receptors? Trends Neurosci. 22:397-402.

11. S.R. Barnum. 1999. Inhibition of complement as a therapeutic approach in inflammatory CNS disease. Mol. Med. 5:569-582.

12. Akiyama, H., Barger, S., Barnum, S., Bradt, B., Bauer, J., Cooper N.R., Eilelenboom, P., Emmerling, M., Fiebich, B., Finch, C.E., Frautschy, S., Griffin, W.S.T., Hampel, H., Landreth, G., McGeer, P.L., Mrak, R., MacKenzie, I., O’Banion, K., Pachter, J., Pasinetti, G., Plata-Salaman, C., Rogers, J., Rydel, R., Shen, Y., Streit, W., Strohmeyer, R., Tooyoma, I., Van Muiswinkel, F.L., Veerhuis, R., Walker, D., Webster, S., Wegrzynaik, B., Wenk, G. and A. Wyss-Coray. 2000. Inflammation and Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurobiol.Aging. 21:383-421.

13. Barnum, S.R. 2001. The complement system in demyelinating disease: new insights from transgenic and complement-deficient mice. In Inflammatory Events in Neurodegeneration. S. Bondy and A. Campbell, eds., Prominent Press, Scottsdale, AZ, pp. 139-156.

14. Barnum, S.R. 2002. Complement in central nervous system inflammation. Immunol. Res. 26:7-14.

15. Szalai, A.J. and S.R. Barnum. 2004. Fc receptors and the common γ-chain in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J. Neurosci. Res. Mini-Review, 75:597-602.

16. Barnum, S.R. and A.J. Szalai. 2005. Complement as a biomarker in multiple sclerosis. J. Neuropath. Exp. Neurol. 64:741.

17. Read, R.W., Szalai, A.J., Vogt, S.D., S.R. Barnum. 2005. Experimental autoimmune uveitis in the C57BL/6 mouse. Exp. Eye Res. 83:229-230.

18. Barnum, S.R. and A.J. Szalai. 2006. Complement and demyelinating disease: No MAC needed? Brain Res. Reviews, 52:58-68.

19. Stahel, P.F. and S.R. Barnum. 2006. The role of the complement system in CNS inflammatory diseases. Exp. Rev. Clin. Immunol. 2:445-456.

20. Stahel, P.F., Felderhoff-Mueser, U., and S.R. Barnum. 2009. Interleukin-18 and neuroinflammation. In Springer Encyclopedia Reference of Neuroscience, J. Haddad, ed., Springer-Verlag, Heildelberg, Germany, pp. 2716-2720.

21. Alexander, JJ, Andersen, A, Barnum, S.R., Stevens, B. and A. Tenner. 2008. The complement cascade: Yin-yang in neuroinflammation: neuro-protection and -degeneration. J. Neurochem. 107:1169-1187.

22. Wohler, J.E., Smith, S.S. and S.R. Barnum. 2009. γδ T Cells: the overlooked T cell subset in Demyelinating Disease: J. Neurosci. Res. 88:1-6.

23. Hu, X., Wohler, J.E., Dugger, K.J. and S.R. Barnum. 2010. β2-integrins in demyelinating disease: not adhering to the paradigm. J. Leuk. Biol., 87:397-403.

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Complement, adhesion molecules, >neuroimmunology, innate immunity, neuropathology, neurodegeneration, >multiple sclerosis, cerebral malaria, ALS