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Faculty Detail    
Campus Address BMR2 530 Zip 2180
Phone  (205) 934-4621
Other websites

Undergraduate  Texas A&M University, College Station, TX    1983  Zoology 
Graduate  Texas A&M University, College Station, TX    1987  Wildlife Fisheries 
Graduate  Emory University School of Medicine    1993  Doctor of Philosophy, Biochemistry 

Faculty Appointment(s)
Appointment Type Department Division Rank
Primary  Pathology   Molecular & Cellular Pathology Professor
Center  Nutrition Sciences   Nutrition Obesity Res Ctr (NORC) Professor
Center  Integrative Center for Aging Research  Integrative Center for Aging Research Professor
Center  GL Ctr for Craniofacial, Oral, & Dental Disorders  GL Ctr for Craniofacial, Oral, & Dental Disorders Professor
Center  General Clinical Research Center  Ctr for Clinical & Translational Sci Professor
Secondary  Environmental Health Sciences  Environmental Health Sciences Professor
Center  Comprehensive Diabetes Center  Comprehensive Diabetes Center Professor
Center  Comprehensive Cardiovascular Ctr  Comprehensive Cardiovascular Ctr Professor
Center  Comprehensive Cancer Center  Comprehensive Cancer Center Professor
Center  Cell, Developmntl, & Integrative Biology  Ctr for Exercise Medicine Professor

Graduate Biomedical Sciences Affiliations
Cancer Biology 
Cell, Molecular, & Developmental Biology 
Hughes Med-Grad Fellowship Program 
Integrative Biomedical Sciences 
Medical Scientist Training Program 
Molecular and Cellular Pathology Program 
Pathobiology and Molecular Medicine 

Biographical Sketch 
Dr. Ballinger received his BS and MS degrees from Texas A&M University and his PhD degree in biochemistry from Emory University. He completed postdoctoral training at the University of Vermont's Genetics and Toxicology Laboratory, initially as an environmental pathology fellow and later as a Department of Energy Alexander Hollaender Distinguished Fellow. He is a member of the College of Science Academy of Distinguished Former Students Award, Texas A&M University.

Society Memberships
Organization Name Position Held Org Link
American Heart Association     
Society for Free Radical Biology and Medicine     

Research/Clinical Interest
Environmental cardiology, free radical biology, mitochondrial function, mitochondrial - nuclear interactions
Because mitochondria are essential for multiple cell functions, including energy production, cell signaling, cell growth, proliferation, programmed cell death and immune response, we hypothesize that aspects of "mitochondrial economy", driven by changes in mitochondrial - nuclear genetic interactions and environmentally induced mitochondrial damage and dysfunction are important in various disease processes. Specifically, we hypothesize that developmental and/or chronic exposure to disease risk factors increases the risk of adult disease development by causing changes in mitochondrial function. We also hypothesize that individual disease susceptibility can be impacted by mitochondrial nuclear interaction processes, and that environmentally influenced selection events for mitochondrial functions that convey increased reproductive and survival success during the global establishment of human populations during prehistoric times, today, influence human disease susceptibility.

Selected Publications 
Publication PUBMEDID
Brown, J.A., Sammy, M.J., Ballinger, S.W. An evolutionary, or “Mitocentric” perspective on cellular function and disease. Redox Biology, 36: 1-16; 2020.  7281786 
Hill BG, Shiva S, Ballinger S, Zhang J, Darley-Usmar VM. Bioenergetics and translational metabolism: implications for genetics, physiology and precision medicine. Biol Chem. 2019 Dec 18;401(1):3-29.  31815377 
Tian R, Colucci WS, Arany Z, Bachschmid MM, Ballinger SW, Boudina S, Bruce JE, Busija DW, Dikalov S, Dorn GW II, Galis ZS, Gottlieb RA, Kelly DP, Kitsis RN, Kohr MJ, Levy D, Lewandowski ED, McClung JM, Mochly-Rosen D, O'Brien KD, O'Rourke B, Park JY, Ping P, Sack MN, Sheu SS, Shi Y, Shiva S, Wallace DC, Weiss RG, Vernon HJ, Wong R, Schwartz Longacre L. Unlocking the Secrets of Mitochondria in the Cardiovascular System: Path to a Cure in Heart Failure—A Report from the 2018 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop. Circulation. 2019 Oct 1;140(14):1205-1216.  31769940 
Ramani M, Miller K, Brown J, Kumar R, Kadasamy J, McMahon L, Ballinger S, Ambalavanan N.Early Life Supraphysiological Levels of Oxygen Exposure Permanently Impairs Hippocampal Mitochondrial Function. Sci Rep. 2019 Sep 16;9(1):13364  31527593 
Kandasamy J, Rezonzew G, Jilling T, Ballinger S, Ambalavanan N. Mitochondrial DNA variation modulates alveolar development in newborn mice exposed to hyperoxia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2019 Dec 1;317(6):L740-L747.  31432715 
Fetterman JL, Ballinger SW. Mitochondrial genetics regulate nuclear gene expression through metabolites.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Aug 6;116(32):15763-15765 
Yang J, He J, Ismail M, Tweeten S, Zeng F, Gao L, Ballinger S, Young M, Prabhu SD, Rowe GC, Zhang J, Zhou L, Xie M. HDAC inhibition induces autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury.
J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2019 May;130:36-48 
Dunham-Snary KJ, Sandel MW, Sammy MJ, Westbrook DG, Xiao R, McMonigle RJ, Ratcliffe WF, Penn A, Young ME, Ballinger SW. Mitochondrial - nuclear genetic interaction modulates whole body metabolism, adiposity and gene expression in vivo. EBioMedicine 36: 316-328, 2018.   6197375 
Kandasamy, J., Olave, N., Ballinger, S.W., Ambalavanan, N. Vascular endothelial mitochondrial bioenergetics at birth predicts death or pulmonary outcome in preterm infants. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (in press).  5649986 
Andres, A.M., Tucker, K.C., Thomas, A., Taylor, D.J.R., Sengstock, D., Jahania, S.M., Dabir, R., Pourpirali, S., Brown, J.A., Westbrook, D.G., Ballinger, S.W., Mentzer, R.M., Gottlieb, R.A. Evidence for mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis in atrial tissue of patients undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Journal of Clinical Investigation (in press).  5313075 
Kesterson, R.A., Johnson, L.W., Lambert, L.J., Vivian, J.L., Welch, D.R., Ballinger, S.W. Generation of Mitochondrial – Nuclear eXchange Mice via Pronuclear Transfer. Bio-protocol 6: e1976m 2016. PMCID in process.  5100744 
Fetterman, J.L., Holbrook, M., Westbrook, D.G., Brown, J.A., Feeley, K.P., Breton-Romero, R., Linder, E.A., Berk, B.D., Weisbrod, R.M., Widlanskky, M.E., Gokce, N., Ballinger, S.W., Hamburg, N.M. Mitochondrial DNA damage and vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular Diabetology 15:53-60, 2016.  4818501 
Krzywanski, D.A., Moellering, D., Westbrook, D.G., Dunham, K., Brown, J., Bray, A., Feeley, K.P., Sammy, M.J., Smith, M.R., Schurr, T.G., Vita, J., Ambalavanan, N., Calhoun, D., Dell Italia, L., Ballinger, S.W. Endothelial cell bioenergetics and mitochondrial DNA damage differ in humans having African and West Eurasian maternal ancestry. Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics 9:26-36, 2016.  4758889 
Dunham-Snary K.J., Ballinger S.W. Mitochondrial-nuclear DNA mismatch matters. Science 349 (6255):1449-50, 2015  26404813 
Feeley, K.P. Bray, A.W., Westbrook, D.G., Johnson, L.W., Kesterson, R.A., Ballinger, S.W. (communicating author), Welch, D.R. Mitochondrial genetics regulate breast cancer tumorigenicity and metastatic potential. Cancer Research 75: 4429-36, 2015.  4610037 
Betancourt, A.M., King, A.L., Fetterman, J.L., Millender-Swain, T., Finley, R.D., Oliva, C.R., Crowe, D.R., Ballinger, S.W.*, Bailey, S.M. Mitochondrial-nuclear genome interactions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Biochemical Journal 46 1 (2): 223-232, 2014.  4086355 
Dunham-Snary, K.J., Ballinger, S.W. Mitochondrial genetics and obesity: evolutionary adaptation and contemporary disease susceptibility. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013 Sep 25;65C:1229-1237.  24075923 
Fetterman, J., Zelickson, B., Johnson, L., Moellering, D.R., Westbrook, D.G., Pompilius, M., Sammy, M.J., Salman, E.D., Johnson, M., Dunham-Snary, K.J., Cao, X., Bradley, W.E., Zhang, J., Wei, C.C., Chacko, B., Schurr, T.G., Kesterson, R.A., Dell’Italia, L.J., Darley-Usmar, V.M., Welch, D.R., Ballinger, S.W. Mitochondrial genetic background modulates bioenergetics and susceptibility to acute cardiac volume overload. Biochemical Journal – Metabolism. 2013 Aug 8.  23924350 
Fetterman, J., Pompilius, M., Westbrook, D.G., Uyeminami, D., Brown, J., Pinkerton, K.E., Ballinger, S.W. Developmental exposure to second-hand smoke increases atherogenesis and alters mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions in apoE -/- mice. PLoS ONE, June 25 2013.  23825571 
Chacko, B.K., Kramer, P.A., Ravi, S., Johnson, M.S., Hardy, R.W., Ballinger, S.W., Darley-Usmar, V.M. Methods for defining distinct bioenergetic profiles in platelets, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils and the oxidative burst from human blood. Laboratory Investigation. 2013 Jun;93(6):690-700. doi: 10.1038/labinvest.2013.53. Epub 2013 Mar 25.  23528848 
Hill, B.G., Benavides, G.A., Lancaster, J.R., Ballinger, S.W., Dell’Italia, L.J., Zhang, J., Darley-Usmar, V.M. Integration of cellular bioenergetics with mitochondrial quality control and autophagy. Biol. Chem. 393: 1485 -1512, 2012.   23092819 
Gladden JD, Ulasova E, Chen Y, Ahed M, Zellickson B, Baman M, Ballinger S.W., Darley-Usmar V, Dell’Italia LJ. Novel insights into interactions between mitochondria and xanthine oxidase in acute cardiac volume overload. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2011 Dec 1;51(11):1975-84. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.08.022. Epub 2011 Aug 30.  21925594 
Gladden JD, Ulasova E, Chen Y, Ahed M, Zellickson B, Baman M, Ballinger S.W., Darley-Usmar V, Dell’Italia LJ. Left ventricular and bioenergetic dysfunction in acute volume overload is mediated by stretch-induced cardiomyocyte xanthine oxidase activation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 1;51(11)1975-84 2011.
Kryzwanski, D.M., Moellering, D., Fetterman, J.L, Dunham-Snary, K.J., Sammy, M.J., Ballinger, S.W. The Mitochondrial Genetic Paradigm for Cardiovascular Disease Susceptibility and Cellular Function: A Complementary Concept to Mendelian Genetics. Laboratory Investigation 91 (8): 1122-1135. 2011.  21647091 
Zhai, L., Ballinger, S.W., Messina, J.L. Potential role of reactive oxygen species in injury-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Molecular Endocrinology 25 (3): 492-502, 2011.  21239612 
Harrison, C.M., Pompilius, M., Pinkerton, K.E., Ballinger, S.W. Mitochondrial oxidative stress influences atherogenic risk and cytokine induced oxidant production. Environmental Health Perspectives 119 (5): 676-681, 2011.  21169125 
Ulasova, E., Gladden, J.D., Zheng, J., Chen, Y., Pat, B., Bradley, W., Powell, P., Zhmijewski, J., Zelickson, B., Ballinger, S.W., Darley-Usmar, V., Dell’Italia, L.J. Extracellular matrix loss in acute volume overload causes structural alterations and dysfunction in cardiomyocyte subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 50: 147-156, 2011.  21059354 
Westbrook, D.G., Anderson, P, Pinkerton, K.E., Ballinger, S.W. Perinatal tobacco smoke exposure significantly increases vascular oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in non-human primates. Cardiovascular Toxicology 10: 216 – 226 2010.   20668962 
Chuang G.C., Yang Z., Westbrook D.G., Pompilius M., Ballinger C.A., White C.R., Krzywanski D.M., Postlethwait E.M., Ballinger S.W. Pulmonary ozone exposure induces vascular dysfunction, mitochondrial damage and atherogenesis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 297: L209-216 2009.  19395667 
Bailey, S.M., Mantena, S.K., Cakir, Y., Chhieng, D., Pinkerton, K.E., Ballinger, S.W. Ethanol and tobacco smoke increase hepatic steatosis and hypoxia in the hypercholesterolemic apoE-/-mouse: Implications for a "multi-hit" hypothesis of fatty liver disease. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 46: 928-938 (2009)  19280709 
Cakir Y, Yang Z, Knight CA, Pompilius M, Westbrook D, Bailey SM, Pinkerton KE, Ballinger SW. Effect of alcohol and tobacco smoke on mtDNA damage and atherogenesis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 Nov 1;43(9):1279-88. Epub 2007 Jul 19.   17893041 
Yang Z, Harrison CM, Chuang GC, Ballinger SW. The role of tobacco smoke induced mitochondrial damage in vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Mutat Res. 2007 Aug 1;621(1-2):61-74. Epub 2007 Mar 1. Review.   17428506 
Gutierrez J, Ballinger SW, Darley-Usmar VM, Landar A., Free radicals, mitochondria, and oxidized lipids: the emerging role in signal transduction in vascular cells. Circ Res. 2006 Oct 27;99(9):924-32  17068300 
Ballinger, S.W. Mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2005 May 15;38(10):1278-95. Review.  
Yang, Z., Knight, C.A., Mamerow, M.M., Vickers, K., Penn, A., Postlethwait, E.M., Ballinger, S.W. Prenatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Promotes Adult Atherogenesis and Mitochondrial Damage in apolipoprotein E -/- Mice fed a Chow Diet. Circulation 110: 3715-3720 2004  15569831 
Ballinger, S.W., Patterson, C., Knight-Lozano, C.A., Burow, D.L., Conklin, C.A., Hu, Z-Y, Reuf, J., Horaist, C., Lebovitz, R., Hunter, G., McIntyre, K., Runge, M.S. Mitochondrial Integrity and Function in Atherogenesis. Circulation 106: 544-549 2002.  12147534 
Knight-Lozano, C.A., Young, C.G., Burrow, D.L., Hu, Z-Y, Uyeminami, D., Pinkerton, K.E., Ischiropoulos, H., Wallace, D.C., and Ballinger, S.W. Cigarette smoke mediates mitochondrial damage in cardiovascular tissues from normocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic mice. Circulation 105: 849-854 2002  11854126 
Ballinger, S.W., Patterson, C., Yan, C-N, Doan, R., Burow, D.L., Young, C.G., Yakes, F.M., Van Houten, B., Ballinger, C.A., Freeman, B.A., Runge, M.S. Hydrogen Peroxide and Peroxynitrite-Induced Mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Circulation Research 86: 960-966; 2000.   10807868 

mitochondria, oxidative stress, evolutionary medicine, cardiovascular disease, cancer, metabolism