Medical Scientist Training Program    Back to Main

Faculty Detail    
Campus Address BMR2 532 Zip 2186
Phone  (205) 975-9225
Other websites

Undergraduate  University of Essex    1993  BSc. Hons 
Graduate  University of Essex    1996  PhD 

Faculty Appointment(s)
Appointment Type Department Division Rank
Center  Comprehensive Diabetes Center  Comprehensive Diabetes Center Professor
Center  Comprehensive Cancer Center  Comprehensive Cancer Center Professor
Center  Integrative Center for Aging Research  Integrative Center for Aging Research Professor
Center  Cystic Fibrosis Research Center  Cystic Fibrosis Research Center Professor
Center  General Clinical Research Center  Ctr for Clinical & Translational Sci Professor
Center  General Clinical Research Center  Nephrology Research & Training Center Professor
Center  Medicine  Ctr Cardiovasc Bio (Org Ret) Professor
Center  Nutrition Sciences   Nutrition Obesity Res Ctr (NORC) Professor
Center  Cell, Developmntl, & Integrative Biology  Ctr for Exercise Medicine Professor
Primary  Pathology   Molecular & Cellular Pathology Professor
Secondary  Surgery   Surgery - Gen Surg Trauma Section Professor
Secondary  Environmental Health Sciences  Environmental Health Sciences Professor
Secondary  Anesthesiology   Anesthesiology Chair Office Associate Professor

Graduate Biomedical Sciences Affiliations
Biochemistry and Structural Biology 
Cancer Biology 
Integrative Biomedical Sciences 
Medical Scientist Training Program 
Molecular and Cellular Pathology Program 
Pathobiology and Molecular Medicine 

Biographical Sketch 
Dr Patel graduated from the University of Essex, UK, where he also obtained his Ph.D in 1996. He then joined the Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) as a post-doctoral fellow, where he is currently Professor and Vice Chair for Research, and Director of the UAB Center for Free Radical Biology. Dr Patelís research centers on understanding the mechanisms that regulate acute and chronic inflammation with a goal of using these insights to develop and test therapeutics targeted to prevent or limit inflammatory injury. Current areas of research include i) investigating how heme proteins regulate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (including nitric oxide and nitrite) to modulate transfusion toxicity, acute lung injury and ischemia reperfusion injury and ii) understanding how post-translational regulation of protein by N-glycans regulate endothelial cell reactivity and monocyte adhesion in the context of atherosclerosis.

Society Memberships
Organization Name Position Held Org Link
International Society for Free Radical Research     
Society for Free Radical Biology and Medicine     
American Thoracic Society     

Research/Clinical Interest
Modulation of Inflammation by Reactive Species and N-glycans
We incorporate basic science and translational studies in pursuit of our research interests which are to understand redox related mechanisms regulating inflammation in various pathogenic states and how these are integrated to environmental stresses. We have three primary areas of focus i) understanding the molecular basis of nitric oxide and nitrite interactions with different organs and red blood cells and how these impact upon biological processes associated with blood flow regulation and pulmonary function during hypoxia, inflammation (associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, Sepsis, trauma, transfusion, transplantation or in response to inhaled (environmental) irritants), ii) understanding the role and effects of free hemoglobin and heme on acute inflammatory stress in the lung (ALI, ARDS) with a focus on interactions with matrikines, and ii) understanding how post-translational modification of proteins by carbohydrates control endothelial cell function and immune cell trafficking to regulate the inflammatory responses. We employ an integrative approach utilizing biochemical, molecular, cell culture and pre-clinical models to develop and test hypotheses and use the insights gained from studies design and conduct translational / clinical studies to test promising therapeutics.

Selected Publications 
Publication PUBMEDID
Spatial mapping of SARS-CoV-2 and H1N1 lung injury identifies differential transcriptional signatures.
Margaroli C, Benson P, Sharma NS, Madison MC, Robison SW, Arora N, Ton K, Liang Y, Zhang L, Patel RP, Gaggar A.
Cell Rep Med. 2021 Apr 20;2(4):100242. doi: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100242. Epub 2021 Mar 23.
PMID: 33778787 
A mechanism for matrikine regulation in acute inflammatory lung injury.
Robison SW, Li J, Viera L, Blackburn JP, Patel RP, Blalock JE, Gaggar A, Xu X.
JCI Insight. 2021 Apr 8;6(7):e140750. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.140750.
PMID: 33830084 
Human and rodent red blood cells do not demonstrate xanthine oxidase activity or XO-catalyzed nitrite reduction to NO.
Lewis SE, Rosencrance CB, De Vallance E, Giromini A, Williams XM, Oh JY, Schmidt H, Straub AC, Chantler PD, Patel RP, Kelley EE.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Oct;174:84-88. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.07.012. Epub 2021 Jul 15.
PMID: 34273539 
Safety and toxicology assessment of sodium nitrite administered by intramuscular injection.
Miller L, Hébert CD, Grimes SD, Toomey JS, Oh JY, Rose JJ, Patel RP.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2021 Oct 15;429:115702. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2021.115702. Epub 2021 Aug 28.
PMID: 34464673 
Supplemental nitrite increases choroidal neovascularization in mice.
Qi X, Ricart K, Ahmed KA, Patel RP*, Boulton ME*.
Nitric Oxide. 2021 Dec 1;117:7-15. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2021.09.005. Epub 2021 Sep 16.
*Co-Senior Author 
PMID: 34537345  
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is associated with reduced oral nitrate reductase activity in extremely preterm infants
Gentle SJ, Ahmed KA, Yi N, Morrow CD, Ambalavanan N, Lal CV, Patel RP.
Redox Biol . 2021 Jan;38:101782 
Xanthine Oxidase Drives Hemolysis and Vascular Malfunction in Sickle Cell Disease Heidi M Schmidt 1, Katherine C Wood 2, Sara E Lewis 3, Scott A Hahn 2, Xena M Williams 3, Brenda McMahon 2, Jeffrey J Baust 2, Shuai Yuan 2, Timothy N Bachman 2, Yekai Wang 4 5, Joo-Yeun Oh 6, Samit Ghosh 2 7, Solomon F Ofori-Acquah 2 7 8, Jeffrey D Lebensburger 9, Rakesh P Patel 6 10, Jianhai Du 4 5, Dario A Vitturi 1 2, Eric E Kelley 3, Adam C Straub 1 2
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol
. 2020 Dec 3;ATVBAHA120315081 
Red blood cell exosome hemoglobin content increases after cardiopulmonary bypass and mediates acute kidney injury in an animal model Pat B, Oh JY, Masjoan Juncos JX, Powell PC, Collawn JF, Patel RP, Dell'Italia LJ; Clinical Working Group.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg . 2020 Dec 3;S0022-5223(20)33187-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.11.102. 
Potential role for age as a modulator of oral nitrate reductase activity
Khandaker Ahtesham Ahmed 1, Kiyoung Kim 2, Karina Ricart 1, William Van Der Pol 3, Xiaoping Qi 4, Marcas M Bamman 5, Christian Behrens 6, Gordon Fisher 7, Michael E Boulton 4, Casey Morrow 5, Pamela V O'Neal 8, Rakesh P Patel 9
Nitric Oxide . 2021 Mar 1;108:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2020.12.001. 
PMID: 33321206 
Damage to Red Blood Cells during Whole Blood Storage.
Oh JY, Marques MB, Xu X, Li J, Genschmer K, Gaggar A, Jansen JO, Holcomb JB, Francois-Pittet J, Patel RP.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2020 Apr 14. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000002730. 
Assessment of ICAM-1 N-glycoforms in mouse and human models of endothelial dysfunction.
Regal-McDonald K, Somarathna M, Lee T, Litovsky SH, Barnes J, Peretik JM, Traylor JG Jr, Orr AW, Patel RP.
PLoS One. 2020 Mar 24;15(3):e0230358. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0230358 
Hydrogen peroxide regulates endothelial surface N-glycoforms to control inflammatory monocyte rolling and adhesion.
McDonald KR, Hernandez-Nichols AL, Barnes JW, Patel RP.
Redox Biol. 2020 Mar 6:101498. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2020.101498 
Sweet and Sticky: Selective Recruitment of Monocyte Subsets by Endothelial N-Glycans.
Regal-McDonald K, Patel RP.
Am J Pathol. 2020 Feb 18. pii: S0002-9440(20)30084-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2020.01.006. [Epub ahead of print] Review. 
Local Peroxynitrite Impairs Endothelial Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Channels and Elevates Blood Pressure in Obesity.
Ottolini M, Hong K, Cope EL, Daneva Z, DeLalio LJ, Sokolowski JD, Marziano C, Nguyen NY, Altschmied J, Haendeler J, Johnstone SR, Kalani MY, Park MS, Patel RP, Liedtke W, Isakson BE, Sonkusare SK.
Circulation. 2020 Apr 21;141(16):1318-1333. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.043385 
Over-the-counter mouthwash use, nitric oxide and hypertension risk.
Joshipura K, Muñoz-Torres F, Fernández-Santiago J, Patel RP, Lopez-Candales A.
Blood Press. 2020 Apr;29(2):103-112. doi: 10.1080/08037051.2019.1680270 
SOD2 acetylation and deacetylation: Another tale of Jekyll and Hyde in cancer.
Hjelmeland AB, Patel RP.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Nov 19;116(47):23376-23378. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1916214116 
High-mannose intercellular adhesion molecule-1 enhances CD16+ monocyte adhesion to the endothelium.
Regal-McDonald K, Xu B, Barnes JW, Patel RP.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2019 Nov 1;317(5):H1028-H1038. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00306.2019. Epub 2019 Aug 9. 
A murine neonatal model of necrotizing enterocolitis caused by anemia and red blood cell transfusions.
MohanKumar K, Namachivayam K, Song T, Jake Cha B, Slate A, Hendrickson JE, Pan H, Wickline SA, Oh JY, Patel RP, He L, Torres BA, Maheshwari A.
Nat Commun. 2019 Aug 2;10(1):3494. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-11199-5. 
Erythrocyte and plasma oxidative stress appears to be compensated in patients with sickle cell disease during a period of relative health, despite the presence of known oxidative agents.
Detterich JA, Liu H, Suriany S, Kato RM, Chalacheva P, Tedla B, Shah PM, Khoo MC, Wood JC, Coates TD, Milne GL, Oh JY, Patel RP, Forman HJ.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Sep;141:408-415. 
Characterizing red blood cell age exposure in massive transfusion therapy: the scalar age of blood index (SBI).
DeSantis SM, Brown DW, Jones AR, Yamal JM, Pittet JF, Patel RP, Wade CE, Holcomb JB, Wang H; PROPPR Study Group.
Transfusion. 2019 Aug;59(8):2699-2708 
Phosgene inhalation causes hemolysis and acute lung injury.
Aggarwal S, Jilling T, Doran S, Ahmad I, Eagen JE, Gu S, Gillespie M, Albert CJ, Ford D, Oh JY, Patel RP, Matalon S.
Toxicol Lett. 2019 Sep 15;312:204-213 
PMID: 31047999 
Sun CW, Yang J, Kleschyov A, Zhuge Z, Carlstrom M, Pernow J, Wajih N, Isbell TS, Oh JY, Cabrales P, Tsai A, Townes T, Kim-Shapiro DB, Patel RP*, Lundberg JO. (2019) Hemoglobin β93 Cysteine is Not Required for Export of Nitric Oxide Bioactivity From the Red Blood Cell. Circulation. In Press  30905171 
Joo-Yeun Oh, Austin Williams, Rakesh P. Patel (2019) Role of Redox-dependent mechanisms in heme release from hemoglobin and erythrocyte hemolysates Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 15; 662: 111-120   
Allison R Jones, Rakesh P Patel, Marisa B Marques, John P Donnelly, Russell L Griffin, Jean-Francois Pittet, Jeffrey D Kerby, Shannon W Stephens, John R. Hess, Henry E Wang (2018) Older blood is associated with increased mortality and adverse events in massively transfused trauma patients: secondary analysis of the PROPPR trial. Critical Care Annals of Emergency Medicine. S0196-0644(18)31326    
Mark A. Duerr, Elisa N.D. Palladino, Celine L. Hartman, James A. Lambert, Jacob D. Franke, Carolyn J. Albert, Sadis Matalon, Rakesh P. Patel, Arne Slungaard, and David A. Ford (2018). Bromofatty aldehyde derived from bromine exposure and myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase modify glutathione and protein. J. Lipid Res. Apr;59(4):696-705.   PMC5880502 
Joshipura KJ, Muñoz-Torres FJ, Morou-Bermudez E, Patel RP. (2017). Over-the-counter mouthwash use and risk of pre-diabetes/diabetes. Nitric Oxide 71:14-20   
Rekha Gautam, Joo-Yeun Oh, Marisa B. Marques, Richard A. Dluhy, Rakesh P. Patel (2018) Characterization of Storage induced Red Blood Cell hemolysis using Raman Spectroscopy. Laboratory Medicine 49(4): 298-310   PMC6180846 
BM. Wagener, PJ Hu, JR. Richter, CA. Evans, J Honavar, AP. Brandon, JY Oh, J Creighton, SW. Stephens, MB. Marques, JD. Kerby, JF Pittet*, RP. Patel* (2018) Role of Heme in Lung Bacterial Infection after Trauma-Hemorrhage and stored RBC transfusion PLOS Medicine Mar 9;15(3):e1002522   PMC58445 
T. Graham, D. Peavey, T. Gray, R. Patel, H. Wang, JF. Pittet, J. Kerby, M. Marques (2017) Assuring Hospital Supply of Fresh Red Blood Cells for Critically Ill Patients. Transfusion. In Press DOI 10.1111/trf.14058  28425604 
K Ahmed, A Nichols, J Honavar, MT Dransfield, S Matalon, RP Patel (2017) Measuring nitrate reductase activity from human and rodent tongues Nitric oxide Jun 1;66:62-70  28390999 
Joo-Yeun Oh, Jennifer Hamm, Xin Xu, Kristopher Genschmer, Ming Zhong, Jeffrey Lebensburger, Marisa B. Marques, Jeffrey D. Kerby, Jean-Francois-Pittet, Amit Gaggar, Rakesh P. Patel (2016). Absorbance and redox based approaches for measuring free heme and free hemoglobin in biological matrices Redox Biol. 167-177. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2016.08.003. PMCID: PMC5007433  5007433 
David A. Ford, Jaideep Honavar, Carolyn J. Albert, Mark A Duerr, Joo Yeun Oh, Stephen Doran, Sadis Matalon, Rakesh P. Patel (2016) Formation of chlorinated lipids post-chlorine gas exposure. J. Lip Research 57(8): 1529-40 PMCID:PMC4959868  4959868 
Yadav AK, Doran SF, Samal AA, Sharma R, Vedagiri K, Postlethwait EM, Squadrito GL, Fanucchi MV, Roberts LJ 2nd, Patel RP*, Matalon S* (2010) Mitigation of Chlorine Gas Lung Injury in rats by post exposure administration of sodium nitrite. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011 Mar;300(3):L362-9.*Co-senior authors   
Weinberg JA, MacLennan PA, Vandromme-Cusick MJ, Angotti JM, Magnotti LJ, Kerby JD, Rue LW III, Barnum SR, Patel RP (2012). Microvascular response to red blood cell transfusion in trauma patients. Shock 37:276-281   
C. Rodriguez, D. Vitturi, J He, M Vandromme, A Brandon, A Hutchings, LW Rue III, JD Kerby, RP Patel (2009) Sodium nitrite therapy attenuates hypertensive effects of HBOC-201 via a nitrite-reductase activity. Biochem J 422(3), 423-432   150230 
Cantu-Medellin N, Vitturi DA, Rodriguez C, Murphy S, Dorman S, Shiva S, Zhou Y, Jia Y, Palmer AF, Patel RP (2011). Effects of T-state and R-state stabilization on deoxyhemoglobin-nitrite reactions and stimulation of nitric oxide signaling. Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry. In Press  2396555 
D. Vitturi, X Teng, JC Toledo, S Matalon, JR Lancaster Jr, RP Patel (2009) Effects of Hemoglobin Fractional Saturation on Nitrite transport in Red Blood Cells: Evidence for Hypoxic Regulation of Nitrite Export. Am J Physiol In Press  2685350 
Jack H Crawford, James Huang, T. Scott Isbell, Sruti Shiva, Balu K Chacko, Alan Schechter, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Jeffrey D Kerby, John D Lang Jr, David Krauss, Chien Ho, Mark T Gladwin, Rakesh P Patel (2006) Hypoxia, Red Blood Cells and Nitrite Regulate NO-dependent Hypoxic Vasodilatation. Blood 107, 566-574  16195332 
Chacko BK, Scott DW, Chandler RT, Patel RP (2011). Endothelial surface N-glycans mediate leukocyte adhesion and are targets for the anti-inflammatory effects of PPAR ligands. J Biol. Chem. 286(44):38738-47  17237310 
John D Lang Jr, Xinjun Teng, Phillip Chumley, Jack H Crawford, T. Scott Isbell, Balu K Chacko, Yuliang Liu, Nirag Jhala, D. Ralph Crowe, Alvin B Smith, Richard C Cross, Luc Frenette, Mike Fallon , Eric E Kelley, Diana W Wilhite, Cheryl R Hall, Grier P Page, J Steven Bynon, Devin E Eckhoff and Rakesh P. Patel (2007) Preemptive Administration of Inhaled Nitric Oxide Accelerates Restoration of Liver Function in Adults Following Orthotopic Liver Transplantation. J Clin Inv. 4;117(9):2583-2591   17717604 
Kelpke SS, Chen B, Bradley KM, Teng X, Chumley P, Moore B, Head H, Viera L, Thompson JA, Crossman DK, Bray MS, Eckhoff DE, Agarwal A, Patel RP (2012). Sodium nitrite therapy protects against brain death induced kidney injury and improves post-transplantation function. Kidney International. 82(3):304-13  17947960 
Bennavides GA, Squadrito GL, Mills RW, Patel HD, Isbell TS, Patel RP, Darley-Usmar VM, Doeller JE, Kraus DW Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007. 104; 17977-82
Y Oh, R Stapley, V Harper, M Marques, RP Patel (2015) Predicting storage-dependent damage to Red Blood Cells using nitrite oxidation kinetics, Peroxiredoxin-2 oxidation and hemoglobin / free heme measurements. Transfusion 12; 2967-78 PMCID: PMC4715702  4715702 
T. Scott Isbell, Chiao-Wang Sun, Li-Chen Wu, Xinjun Teng, Dario A. Vitturi, Billy G Branch, Christopher G Kevi, Namasivayam Ambalavanan Lisa Schwiebert, Jinxiang Ren, Kevin M. Pawlik, Matthew B. Renfrow, Rakesh P. Patel*, Tim M. Townes*. (2008) Role of SNO-Hemoglobin in Normal Development and Physiology. Nature Medicine 14(7); 773
* Co-senior author
Christopher G Kevil and Rakesh P Patel (2010) S-nitrosothiol biology and Therapeutic potential in metabolic disease. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs. 10: 1127-34   20872315 
166. JA Weinberg and RP Patel (2016) Red Blood cell transfusion and its effect on microvascular dysfunction shock states. Best Practice and Research Clinical Anaesthesiology 30, 491-498

Greenway FL, Predmore BL, Flanagan DR, Giordano T, Qiu Y, Brandon A, Lefer DJ, Patel RP, Kevil CG.(2012)Single-dose pharmacokinetics of different oral sodium nitrite formulations in diabetes patients.Diabetes Technol Ther. 2012 Jul;14(7):552-60

Owusu BY, Stapley R, Patel RP.(2012)Nitric oxide formation versus scavenging: the red blood cell balancing act.
J. Physiol. 590(Pt20):4993-5000

Stapley R, Owusu BY, Brandon A, Cusick M, Rodriguez C, Marques MB, Kerby JD, Barnum SR, Weinberg JA, Lancaster JR Jr, Patel RP. (2012) Erythrocyte storage increases rates of NO and nitrite scavenging: implications for transfusion-related toxicity.Biochem J. 446(3);499-508  22720637 
Scott DW, Chen J, Chacko BK, Traylor JG Jr, Orr AW, Patel RP.(2012). Role of endothelial N-glycan mannose residues in monocyte recruitment during atherogenesis. ATVB 32(8) Epub Ahead of print  22723438 

vascular, hemoglobin, red cells, Inflammation, isoflavones, Nitric oxide, nitrite, N-glycan, matrikine