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Faculty Detail    
Campus Address KAUL 816 Zip 0024
Phone  (205) 996-2292
Other websites Mitchell Laboratory
PubMed Link

Graduate  University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS)    2011  PhD 
Fellowship  University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB)    2014  Postdoctoral Training 

UAB Clinical and Translational Science (CTS) Training Program  2015 
UAB Center for Teaching and Learning-Teaching Certificate Program   2016 

Faculty Appointment(s)
Appointment Type Department Division Rank
Primary  Urology   Urology Chair Office Assistant Professor
Secondary  Cell, Developmntl, & Integrative Biology  Cell, Developmntl, & Integrative Biology Assistant Professor
Center    Assistant Professor
Center  General Clinical Research Center  Ctr for Clinical & Translational Sci Assistant Professor
Center  General Clinical Research Center  Nephrology Research & Training Center Assistant Professor

Graduate Biomedical Sciences Affiliations
Cell, Molecular, & Developmental Biology 
Pathobiology and Molecular Medicine 

Biographical Sketch 
Dr. Mitchell has a broad background as well as specific training and expertise in mitochondria and oxidative stress in kidney related research using animal and cellular models. For her dissertation studies at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, she examined the effect of cold storage (ischemia) on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in renal tubular cells and isolated rat kidneys. She determined that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species play a significant role in cold storage injury and this could be reduced by the mitochondrial targeted antioxidant, mitoquinone. As a postdoctoral fellow in the UAB Department of Pathology, Dr. Mitchell determined that oxidative stress and disruption in autophagy and mitochondrial quality in a Type 1 diabetes model contributes to pancreatic beta cell injury. In addition, she evaluated cellular bioenergetics in immune cells from patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease as a potential marker to monitor disease progression. In July 2014, Dr. Mitchell became a faculty member in the UAB Department of Urology. Over the last few years, she has developed an independent area of research that focuses on understanding the significance of mitochondria and oxidative stress in immune cells in kidney stone disease using both experimental models and clinical samples. This work is currently funded by a NIH NIDDK K01 Award. Her long-term research goal is to 1) understand cellular mechanisms contributing to urological disorders and 2) to translate her laboratory findings to mitigate or prevent urological disorders in patients.

Society Memberships
Organization Name Position Held Org Link
Birmingham Physiology Network  Member   
The American Physiological Society  Member   
The American Society of Nephrology  Member   

Research/Clinical Interest
The Role of Mitochondria in Immune Cells in Urological Disorders
It is estimated that approximately 9% of the US population will develop a kidney stone (KS) in their lifetime. Individuals that experience KS have an increased risk of developing recurring stones, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular diseases. The most common type of KS is the calcium oxalate kidney stone (CaOx-KS). CaOx-KS form in the nephron and are predominately composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Renal cells that interact with COM crystals release inflammatory cytokines and chemokines to recruit immune cells for phagocytosis. If crystals are not properly cleared, this can result in local increased inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and tissue injury. Accumulation of these events can cause further inflammation and oxidative stress and may affect circulating cells such as leukocytes and platelets. Immune cells rely heavily on the mitochondrion to carry out important cellular functions such as phagocytosis. Dr. Mitchell's current research interest is to understand the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in immune cells during kidney stone disease. In addition, Dr. Mitchell is also interested in studying these same parameters in individuals affected by interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

Selected Publications 
Publication PUBMEDID
Oxalate induces mitochondrial dysfunction and disrupts redox homeostasis in a human monocyte derived cell line. Patel M, Yarlagadda V, Adedoyin O, Saini V, Assimos DG, Holmes RP, Mitchell T. Redox Biol. 2017 Dec 15;15:207-215.  29272854 
Pleiotropic effects of 4-hydroxynonenal on oxidative burst and phagocytosis in neutrophils. Chacko BK, Wall SB, Kramer PA, Ravi S, Mitchell T, Johnson MS, Wilson L, Barnes S, Landar A, Darley-Usmar VM.Redox Biol. 2016 Oct;9:57-66.   27393890 
Monocyte Mitochondrial Function in Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers. Williams J, Holmes RP, Assimos DG, Mitchell T.Urology. 2016 Mar 10. pii: S0090-4295(16)00286-7.  26972146 
The Bioenergetic Health Index is a sensitive measure of oxidative stress in human monocytes. Chacko BK, Zhi D, Darley-Usmar VM, Mitchell T. Redox Biol. 2015 Dec 24;8:43-50.   26748041 
Hemoglobin-associated oxidative stress in the pericardial compartment of postoperative cardiac surgery patients.Kramer PA, Chacko BK, Ravi S, Johnson MS, Mitchell T, Barnes S, Arabshahi A, Dell'Italia LJ, George DJ, Steele C, George JF, Darley-Usmar VM, Melby SJ.Lab Invest. 2015 Feb;95(2):132-41.  25437645 
The Bioenergetic Health Index: a new concept in mitochondrial translational research. Chacko BK, Kramer PA, Ravi S, Benavides GA, Mitchell T, Dranka BP, Ferrick D, Singal AK, Ballinger SW, Bailey SM, Hardy RW, Zhang J, Zhi D, Darley-Usmar VM. Clin Sci (Lond). 2014 Sep;127(6):367-73.   24895057 
Mitochondria in monocytes and macrophages-implications for translational and basic research. Ravi S, Mitchell T, Kramer PA, Chacko B, Darley-Usmar VM. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014 Aug;53:202-7.   24863362  
Bioenergetics and the oxidative burst: protocols for the isolation and evaluation of human leukocytes and platelets. Kramer PA, Chacko BK, Ravi S, Johnson MS, Mitchell T, Darley-Usmar VM. J Vis Exp. 2014 Mar 27;(85).   24747339 
Dysfunctional mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress in Akita(+/Ins2)-derived β-cells. Mitchell T, Johnson MS, Ouyang X, Chacko BK, Mitra K, Lei X, Gai Y, Moore DR, Barnes S, Zhang J, Koizumi A, Ramanadham S, Darley-Usmar VM. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep 1;305(5):E585-99.  23820623 
Mitochondrially targeted compounds and their impact on cellular bioenergetics. Reily C, Mitchell T, Chacko BK, Benavides G, Murphy MP, Darley-Usmar V. Redox Biol. 2013;1(1):86-93.
Convergent mechanisms for dysregulation of mitochondrial quality control in metabolic disease: implications for mitochondrial therapeutics. Mitchell T, Chacko B, Ballinger SW, Bailey SM, Zhang J, Darley-Usmar V. Biochem Soc Trans. 2013 Feb 1;41(1):127-33.
Controlling radicals in the powerhouse: development of MitoSOD. Mitchell T, Chacko BK, Darley-Usmar V.Chem Biol. 2012 Oct 26;19(10):1217-8.   23102214 
Metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction: insights from preclinical studies with a mitochondrially targeted antioxidant. Mitchell T, Darley-Usmar V. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Mar 1;52(5):838-40.
Generation and characterization of a novel kidney-specific manganese superoxide dismutase knockout mouse. Parajuli N, Marine A, Simmons S, Saba H, Mitchell T, Shimizu T, Shirasawa T, Macmillan-Crow LA. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Jul 15;51(2):406-16.
The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone protects against cold storage injury of renal tubular cells and rat kidneys. Mitchell T, Rotaru D, Saba H, Smith RA, Murphy MP, MacMillan-Crow LA. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 Mar;336(3):682-92.
Role of mitochondrial-derived oxidants in renal tubular cell cold-storage injury. Mitchell T, Saba H, Laakman J, Parajuli N, MacMillan-Crow LA. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010 Nov 1;49(8):1273-82.
Alteration of renal respiratory Complex-III during experimental type-1 diabetes. Munusamy S, Saba H, Mitchell T, Megyesi JK, Brock RW, Macmillan-Crow LA. BMC Endocr Disord. 2009 Jan 23;9:2.
Manganese porphyrin reduces renal injury and mitochondrial damage during ischemia/reperfusion. Saba H, Batinic-Haberle I, Munusamy S, Mitchell T, Lichti C, Megyesi J, MacMillan-Crow LA. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 May 15;42(10):1571-8.

Mitochondria, Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, Immune Cells, Kidney Stones, Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome